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July 2003-July 2010InteractiveDig Sagalassos
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Evelien and Raf work with the theodolite at the Hadrian and Antoninus Pius Sanctuary.
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Location of the Hadrianic Nymphaeum's blocks as measured by the theodolite
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Photographer B. Vandermeulen hangs on a crane to record the colossal Apollo statue.
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P. Bockstaele videotaping some of the activities

Photos courtesy Sagalassos Archaeological Research Project. Click on images to enlarge.
by Marc Waelkens

Recording: August 8-12, 2004

Topographical recording
Topographical recording at Sagalassos began from 1986 to 1988, when a team of topographical students directed by S. Mitchell (then University College of Swansea, now University of Exeter) and Robin Fursdon (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) began mapping the central part of Sagalassos at a scale of 1:2000. However, this map was not detailed enough for producing good digital terrain models and for use in urban study purposes. So from 1989 onwards, F. Depuydt (KULeuven) and several of his students mapped the outskirts of the city at a much more detailed scale. This was 1:500 and rendered differences in altitude, vegetation, and sparse architectural elements in much greater detail. Since his retirement a few years ago, F. Depuydt has continued this work with great dedication assisted by his wife Annemie (also a topographer). In June they were able to complete the old British map of the city center at the same detailed scale. The completed map has allowed us to make digitized terrain models at the scales we wish. The various excavated and digitized structures have been introduced into this city map by Patrick Casier from Leuven, who has been coming with his team for more than five years to set out the grids before excavation starts. The work of both teams, combined with the recording of all visible architecture at the surface by Femke Martens and the geophysical research carried out by the Slovenian team of Branko Music, has allowed us to produce maps with functional zones, to trace the street patterns, and to identify the supply, distribution, and sewage of water.

Since the beginning of July, our recording team has consisted of two nationalities and two different disciplines: two topographers, Raf Van den Bergh and Evelien Schippers (graduated from the De Mayer Institute, Sint-Katelijne Waver, Belgium) and the Turkish students in architecture, Mustafa Cekic (METU Ankara), Ozan Avci (ITU Istanbul), Gözde Yilmaz (ITU Istanbul), Özlem Özcan (ITU Istanbul) and architect Günnür Caliskan (ITU Istanbul). In July we also had the help of Selin Sarac (ITU Istanbul), Özgur Isik and Serdar Saygi (both METU Ankara), who left us at the beginning of the month. The Belgian architect Karel Paul, who also has a masters in conservation, directs the team.

The work on the site involves drawing plans and elevations as well as recording masonry blocks removed from the Hadrianic Nymphaeum. When the excavations reach floor levels, the architect's team draws the final plans of the excavated structures. These plans are made at a scale 1:50 and represent all structures that are in place. These are measured first with the theodolite (a telescope-like instrument that can measure horizontal and vertical angles) by our topographers. The plotted points then serve as a basis for the drawing. In this way, all drawings are on the right scale, and we avoid an accumulation of mistakes. Also, by knowing the correct coordinates of the structures, we can bring together the drawings of this campaign with those of last campaigns and produce general plans of the excavated structures throughout the different years. These drawings are used afterwards by all disciplines working on the site as a basis for adding their information. Our team also draws elevations of the walls in the Domestic Area. These drawings, made in situ, are based on a scale 1:20 using points measured with the theodolite. M. Waelkens' uses the drawings to indicate the different building materials and building phases, as well as to show where actions of site conservation were undertaken to preserve ancient remains.

Another task of the team is the recording of the Hadrianic Nymphaeum. As last year, the position of all architectural fragments and masonry stones are measured with the theodolite before being removed and taken to a stone platform. The measured points, four to five for each stone, make it possible to draw the stone situation plans that represent the exact position in which each stone was found. This also allows us to make a reconstruction drawing and a 3D model of the nymphaeum. After the stones are removed from the site by the crane, under the supervision of architect Günnür Cal×skan, they are brought to the stone platform where they are drawn again in the position as they are stored. There, Julian Richard gives them their final number and description. Next to the drawn record there is the photographic record. On the digital pictures the corresponding stone numbers are indicated. In this way the exact position of the stones as they were found can be traced back, which can help with the further interpretation of the building.

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Left, digital terrain model with the streets in green and the street in red. Right, 3-D computer drawing of part of the Hadrianic Nymphaeum with the in situ remains.

Digital and Video recording
Meanwhile, thousands of smaller and larger artifacts are being recorded by our photographer Bruno Vandermeulen, sometimes from rather awkward positions. P. Bockstaele has been videotaping the progress of the excavations since 1990.

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